There are a number of popular methods used in improving the user experience at all phases of research and design.
The following are some of the more popular methods we use and when we use them.
We will focus on most of these methods in detail at the UX Bootcamp in Denver.
Who are the Users and Customers?
- Survey: The cheapest way to find out who your users are, what they want, what they do, what they purchase, where they shop, and what they own is to survey them. Use internal and external contact lists to get a less biased view on your customers. Survey software is free, so there’s no excuse.
- Persona / Market Segmentation: Turn survey data into meaningful clusters. What functions do certain segments want, and when in the buying decision do they care the most? Think beyond gender, income and age, and look to tasks and domain experience as key differentiators.
- Competitive Analysis: Rarely does a product or website do something that NO ONE else does. Understand the market, find out what similar companies do in your market and look to similar industries. What features are common? What delights customers? Use industry benchmarks like the Net Promoter Score for word-of-mouth and the System Usability Scale for usability.
- Contextual Inquiry: Users can’t always articulate what they need or what they want. Through the process of observing users in their workplace or home attempting to solve problems and accomplish goals, look to identify unmet needs and understand the tasks they perform.
- Stakeholder Interviews: An amazing amount of information already exists in different departments across companies. Don’t simply interview the HiPPO’s. Use a structured interview to ask customer support, QA, development, marketing and sales to find out what to build, what to fix, and what to cut.
- Quality Function Deployment: Structure the ideas from internal stakeholders with data from users and customer into a matrix to understand what functions will meet the most internal and external requirements. Incorporate the competitive information to really impress your colleagues and make more informed decisions.
What are users trying to do?
- Task Analysis: Decompose what users are trying to accomplish to understand how the application makes tasks more efficient and effective. See the Bible on Task Analysis: Contextual Design by Beyer and Holtzblatt.
- Top Tasks Analysis: Your application can’t do everything for everyone all the time. Most people use applications (software or websites) for just a handful of tasks. Survey users and find out which “vital few” tasks satisfy the majority of the needs most of the time. Be sure the application does these tasks well. See Gerry McGovern’s book “The Stranger’s Long Neck.”
Design & Development
What will the interface look like?
- Wireframing : Sketching the major elements of an interface early using paper, Visio or PowerPoint is sufficient for understanding functionality, flow and opportunities for improvement. It allows you to get designs in front of stakeholders.
- Prototyping : Add a level of fidelity to your designs and get them tested early and often. Lean UX means generating the minimum viable prototype. Be ready to throw it out and start over. There are a plethora of prototyping tools for non-coders that turn images and sketches into hosted websites and clickable screens. Try Justinmind, Axure or Balsamiq.
Testing & Evaluation Methods
How will it be organized?
- Card Sorting: What do you call functions, screens and abstract concepts and how do you group them? Instead of guessing, have users sort items into groups and then name the groups.
- Tree Testing: Test the navigation of your wireframes and prototypes using just an abstracted taxonomy by having users try to locate items in your navigation.
- First Click Testing: If users go down the wrong path, they’re more likely to get lost and fail to complete tasks. Understand where users go first.
- Keystroke Level Modeling: Without even testing a user you can have some idea about how long a task will take or whether proposed changes will take more or less time. The KLM method uses some core HCI laws to estimate how long skilled users will take to complete tasks.
- Heuristic Evaluations: Identify issues early before subjecting them to users. Inspection methods like HE tend to uncover around 30% of the issues users will have. Ideally, you have at least two independent evaluators who know something about HCI principles and the domain. Fix the obvious problems before wasting valuable user time on them.
What problems are users having?
- Moderated In Person Testing: Ideal for mobile device testing or when it’s tough to put prototypes up remotely, test users in a lab, conference room or even a hallway to get an idea about what tasks are problems and what needs to be fixed.
- Moderated Remote Testing: Using cheap and ubiquitous services like GoTo Meeting or WebEx, you can recruit users from anywhere in the world to attempt tasks. You can even record facial expressions with webcams. Don’t simply ask what users think of the design, have them attempt tasks and probe on difficulties and collect metrics.
- Unmoderated Remote Usability Testing: If your designs and tasks are well defined enough and you can host your prototypes online, users can attempt tasks remotely without having to be there. You can even test images with hotspots. With structured tasks and specific questions using services like MUIQ, Usertesting.com and Loop11 can get you results from dozens to hundreds of users the same day. Act on the insights and test again.
Deployment and Release
- Usability Benchmark Study: Now that everything is functioning, understand how usable your website or software is by having a representative set of users attempt tasks. Collect metrics and use confidence intervals to generate a reliable benchmark. Use standardized questionnaires (after the task and at the end of the study) where possible. This can be done in a lab-environment or remotely.
- Unmoderated Remote Usability Testing : With a live website you can have users attempt the same tasks you identified early in the Top Task analysis and in the formative design stage. You can record clicks and even have an entire video that shows where users are getting stuck without you being there.
- Comparative Benchmark Study : How difficult are the same tasks on the competitive applications you defined in the requirement stages? Recruit users, use core metrics like completion rates, time and task-difficulty and see the strengths and weaknesses of your website. Sometimes the best comparable is a best in class website that provides a similar service in a different industry. If you’re selling mobile-service plans, consider comparing the checkout experience to DirecTV or Zappos.
- A/B Testing : Don’t guess, test. Design and improvements don’t stop once you’re released; this is much easier in the web-based application word. Test forms, buttons, copy, images and prices. Don’t be afraid to test wild-card ideas.
- Multivariate Testing: One-variable-at-a-time testing helps tweak the website but can take a long time if you want to test a lot and you will have no idea how two elements interact. For example, surprising things happen when you couple a lower price with a different product package (two variable interactions). You can multivariate test on a live website or simulate the experience in a development environment using attitudinal data instead of actual purchases.
- Survey: Are users recommending your website or product? Do they trust it and find it appealing? Compare your scores to industry benchmarks and use standardized questions. Ask what users would improve and associate open-ended comments to quantitative data.