How to Statistically Analyze Net Promoter Scores

In a famous Harvard Business Review article published in 2003, Fred Reichheld introduced the Net Promoter Score (NPS). The NPS uses a single likelihood-to-recommend (LTR) question (“How likely is it that you would recommend our company to a friend or colleague?”) with 11 scale steps from 0 (Not at all likely) to 10 (Extremely likely).

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How to Compare a Net Promoter Score with a Benchmark

We recently described how to compare two Net Promoter Scores (NPS) statistically using a new method based on adjusted-Wald proportions. In addition to comparing two NPS, researchers sometimes need to compare one NPS with a benchmark. For example, suppose you have data that the average NPS in your industry is 17.5%, and you want to

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Seven Reasons People Misinterpret Survey Questions

Like in all research methods, many things can go wrong in surveys, from problems with sampling to mistakes in analysis. To draw valid conclusions from your survey, you need accurate responses. But participants may provide inaccurate information. They could forget the answers to questions or just answer questions incorrectly. One common reason respondents answer survey

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Are Star Ratings Better Than Numbered Scales?

Five-star reviews. Whether you’re rating a product on Amazon, a dining experience on Yelp, or a mobile app in the App or Play Store, you can see that the five-star rating system is quite ubiquitous. Does the familiarity of stars offer a better rating system than traditional numbered scales? We recently reported a comparison between standard

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8 Manipulations of the Net Promoter Score: Which Ones Matter?

There’s no shortage of opinions about the Net Promoter Score. There’s nothing wrong with an opinion. It’s just better when there’s data backing it. Unfortunately, when it comes to opinions about the Net Promoter Score, especially how the underlying question is displayed, the opinions are often based on anecdotes and out-of-context “best practices.” At MeasuringU,

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Cultural Effects on Rating Scales

Numbers are universally understood across cultures, geography, and languages. But when those numbers are applied to sentiments (for example, satisfaction, agreement, or intention), do people respond universally or does a 4 on a five-point scale elicit different reactions based on culture or geography? Many international organizations use similar sets of measures (such as satisfaction or

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Comparing Fully vs. Partially Labeled Five- and Seven-Point Scales

In our earlier article, Jim Lewis and I reviewed the published literature on labeling scales. Despite some recommendations and “best practice” wisdom, we didn’t find that fully labeled scales were measurably superior to partially labeled scales across the 17 published studies that we read. In reviewing the studies in more detail, we found many had

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How Do You Measure Delight?

In an earlier article, we reviewed five competing models of delight. The models differed in their details, but most shared the general idea that delight is composed of an unexpected positive experience. Or, for the most part, delight is a pleasant surprise. However, there is disagreement on whether you actually need surprise to be delighted.

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What Is Customer Delight?

The Four Seasons Hotel in Vail, Colorado, includes twice-daily housekeeping service. In addition to the usual room cleaning, in the evening they “turn down” your room by doing things such as preparing the bed, cleaning up, and closing the shades for you while you’re out at dinner. Many luxury hotels offer turn-down service, so that’s

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Five Scales to Measure Customer Satisfaction

While customer satisfaction may be thought of as one concept, there’s isn’t a single “official” way to measure it. By one estimate there are more than 40 instances of different customer satisfaction scales described in the published literature. That, in part, is a consequence of how common satisfaction is as a measure. Satisfaction is measured on

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