# Sample Size Calculator for Discovering Problems in a User Interface

This calculator produces an estimate of the number of users needed to discover the specified percent of total problems. It uses the Good-Turing and Normalization procedure.

Sample Size from an estimate of Problem Occurrence (p)

If the probability of detecting a UI problem is known in advance, use this portion of the calculator to estimate the total number of users needed to uncover on average the specified percentage of problems (e.g. 90%). The calculator is based on the binomial probability formula.
 Input Discover 99%95%90%85%80%75%70%65%60%55%50%of all Problems. Problem Occurrence (values between 0 and 1)
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Estimate Problem Occurrence (p) then Sample Size
This portion of the calculator first builds an estimate of the probability of detecting a UI problem (from sample data). It then produces an estimate of the number of users needed to discover the specified percent of total problems. It uses the Good-Turing and Normalization procedure as outlined by Lewis (2001) and further discussed in (Turner, Lewis & Nielsen 2006).

 Input Discover 99%95%90%85%80%75%70%65%60%55%50%of all Problems.Total participants 123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233343536373839404142434445464748495051525354555657585960616263646566676869707172737475767778798081828384858687888990919293949596979899100Problems Discovered: 123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233343536373839404142434445464748495051525354555657585960616263646566676869707172737475767778798081828384858687888990919293949596979899100
 Results
References
Lewis, James (2001) "Evaluation of Procedures for Adjusting Problm-Discovery Rates Estimated from Small Samples" in The International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction 13(4) p. 445-479

Turner, C. W., Lewis, J. R., and Nielsen, J. (2006). Determining usability test sample size. In W. Karwowski (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Ergonomics and Human Factors (pp. 3084-3088). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
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