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How to Estimate the Standard Deviation for Rating Scales

The standard deviation is the most common measure of variability. It’s less intuitive than measures of central tendency such as the mean, but it plays an essential role in analysis and sample size planning. The standard deviation is a key ingredient when building a confidence interval and can be easily computed from a sample of

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A microphone and speech bubble with text: What Do People Say When They Think Aloud?

What Do People Say When They Think Aloud?

Think Aloud (TA) usability testing is a popular UX research method. Having participants speak their thoughts as they attempt tasks helps researchers understand sources of misunderstandings, potentially aiding them in identifying and fixing usability problems. It’s such a common technique in usability testing that we suspect few researchers think about the impacts and consequences (positive

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UX and NPS Benchmarks of Electronics Websites (2023)

What do people buy online? Behind clothing, consumer electronics are at the top of the list. Beyond smartphones, people purchase computers, TVs, tablets, gaming consoles, and a myriad of smartphone accessories. Before purchasing, roughly half of US consumers research details about consumer products online, including features, reviews, and prices. To understand the electronics researching and

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agile board with text: 13 Tips for Running a Successful Rolling Research Program

13 Tips for Running a Successful Rolling Research Program

While the term Lean UX has faded in popularity, many of the lean concepts remain, and they are even incorporated into other frameworks such as Agile. One of the core tenets of Lean UX is to focus on decisions and not deliverables. In project-based UX research, decisions often take a back seat to deliverables. Research

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computer parts with text in foreground reading: Refining a tech-savvy measure for ux research

Refining a Tech-Savvy Measure for UX Research

In an earlier article, we described a pilot study from 2015 in which we investigated how to measure tech savviness. Building on the published literature, we generated candidate items that measured three aspects of tech savviness: what people know, what people do, and what people feel. In that pilot study, we assessed knowledge using a

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large black mouse atop a person typing on a laptop hovering mouse over a section of a webpage that's heat mapped with a red circle, text in foreground reads: Do Click Tests Predict Live Site Clicks?

Do Click Tests Predict Live Site Clicks?

How important and predictive is the first click on a website? Some earlier research by Bob Bailey and Cari Wolfson, conducted between 2006 and 2009 across a dozen studies, found an interesting result. If a user’s first click on a website was down one of the optimal paths for the intended task, 87% of those

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rating scale data grid with foreground text reading: The Variability and Reliability of Standardized UX Scales

The Variability and Reliability of Standardized UX Scales

In an earlier article, we examined a large dataset of rating scale data. After analyzing over 100,000 individual responses from 4,048 multipoint items across 25 studies, we reported the typical standard deviations for five-, seven-, and eleven-point items. We found that the average standard deviation tended to be around 25% of the maximum range of

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microphone in front of laptop with recording software open on laptop screen, foreground text reads: Does Thinking Aloud Affect Study Metrics?

Does Thinking Aloud Affect Study Metrics?

One of the most popular UX research methods is Think Aloud (TA) usability testing. Having participants speak their thoughts while working on tasks helps researchers identify usability problems and potential fixes. After a TA session, many UX research teams also collect study-level metrics. Study-level metrics are typically asked only once in a study (unlike task-level

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UX and NPS Benchmarks of Wireless Service Provider Websites (2023)

Smartphones are ubiquitous in modern life globally and in the US. Almost all Americans have smartphones (85%), with US sales expected to exceed 74 billion dollars. But people don’t just own them, they (we) use them—a lot! Average monthly data use worldwide is expected to increase from 19GB in 2023 to 46GB in 2028 (55GB

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In Search of a Tech-Savvy Measure for UX Research

How do you measure tech savviness? Abstract constructs such as usability, trustworthiness, intelligence, and desirability can be difficult to measure. The same applies to tech savviness. But to paraphrase Potter Stewart, we know a tech-savvy person when we see one. Tech savviness should matter to UX researchers. When we measure an experience, we don’t want

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