“Does What I Need It to Do”: Assessing an Alternate Usefulness Item

The UMUX-Lite is a two-item standardized questionnaire that, since its publication in 2013, has been adopted more and more by researchers who need a concise UX metric. Figure 1 shows the standard version with its Perceived Ease-of-Use (“{Product} is easy to use”) and Perceived Usefulness (“{Product}’s capabilities meet my requirements”) items.   Figure 1: Standard

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Sample Size Estimation for NPS Confidence Intervals

Sample size estimation is a critical step in research planning. It can also seem like a mysterious and at times controversial process. But sample size estimation, when done correctly, is based mostly on math, not magic. The challenge is that the math can get complex, so it becomes easier to defer to simple rules or

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How to Statistically Compare Two Net Promoter Scores

When we wrote Quantifying the User Experience, we put confidence intervals before tests of statistical significance. We generally find fluency with confidence intervals to be easier to achieve and of more value than with formal hypothesis testing. We also teach confidence intervals in our workshops on statistical methods. Most people, even non-researchers, have been exposed

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Feature Open Ended Questions 011320

Five Reasons to Use Open-Ended Questions

Despite the ease with which you can create surveys using software like our MUIQ platform, selecting specific questions and response options can be a bit more involved. Most surveys contain a mix of closed-ended (often rating scales) and open-ended questions. We’ve previously discussed 15 types of common rating scales and have published numerous articles in

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Sliders

Are Sliders More Sensitive than Numeric Rating Scales?

Sliders are a type of visual analog scale that can be used with many online survey tools such as our MUIQ platform. The literature on their overall effectiveness is mixed (Roster et al., 2015). On the positive side, evidence indicates that sliders might be more engaging to respondents. On the negative side, evidence also indicates

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Latin and Greco-Latin Experimental Designs for UX Research

During the fall in the northern hemisphere, leaves change colors, birds fly south, and the temperature gets colder. Do the birds change the color of the leaves, and does their departure make the temperature colder? What if you gave participants two versions of a rating scale, with the first having responses ordered from strongly disagree

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Should You Use Negative Numbers in Rating Scales?

There are a lot of opinions about the best formats for agreement scales. Sometimes those opinions are strongly held and can lead to lengthy, heated discussions within research teams. When format differences affect measurement properties, those discussions may be time well spent, but when the formats don’t matter (or matter very little), the time is

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Are Face Emoji Ratings Better than Numbered Scales?

Somewhat agree, very satisfied, extremely likely. The labels used on the points of rating scales can affect responses in often unpredictable ways. What’s more, certain terms can get lost in translation when writing surveys for international usage. Some terms may have subtly different meanings, possibly making cross-cultural comparisons problematic. While numbers are universally understood and

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The Evolution of the Mean Opinion Scale: From MOS-R to MOS-X2

The Mean Opinion Scale (MOS) is a standardized questionnaire used to assess synthetic speech. The quality of synthetic speech strongly affects the user experience of working with conversational systems, with listeners making rapid and unconscious judgments of the speaker’s personality, so it’s important to have standardized methods for its assessment. In an earlier article, we

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What Is the Mean Opinion Scale (MOS)?

The quality of the electronic transmission of the human voice has come a long way since Bell summoned Watson. But even with all the advancement in technology, “Can you hear me now?” is still part of our modern lexicon. Voice—both human and digital—plays an increasingly important role in interactions with our devices. But before you

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